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27 October 2010 @ 08:54 pm
IS: more September notes  

Grammar

movement – ég fer heim, I’m going home
static – ég er heima, I’m at home

Jón á Á á á
Jón (forsetning) (nafnorð of river) (eiga) (nafnorð, sheep)
Jón at (river name) owns a sheep

Topicalization: (moving the subject around, which can’t happen in English because the subject of a sentence is determined by word order in English. In Icelandic it's determined by case.)
Andlag (nf) + sögn (þgf) + frumlag (þgf)
Konan hjálpar stelpunni / stelpan hjálpar konunni
The woman helps the girl / the girl helps the woman

Stelpunni (þgf) hjálpar (þgf) konan (nf)
The girl is helped by the woman (the woman helps the girl)
This order isn’t common, used for emphasising the object of the sentence.

Exceptions:
rule for owning for hafa: ég á afmæli
Eiga for time is only used when making appointments: Ég á tíma núna
Vera takes nominative except when “vera með” because preposition nullifies the rule. with með, subject now takes accusative.
In spoken language, common to use hafa for body parts but the proper way is vera með.




Example sentences
Mér finnst (að?) það gaman að ferðast/lesa/læra
Rétt hjá reykjavík - very close to reykjavik
Hún vinnur í sama banka og Kristín
Nei, hann vinnur ekki í búð. Hann vinnur á skrifstofu.
Besta vinkona hennar.
Neitun á eftir sögn - the negation goes after the verb
Gluggakisturnar voru þaktar báberjum – the windowsill was covered with blueberries
Móðir hennar þreif hana í fangið – her mother caught her in her arms
Fá til liðs við sig –they got on their team (“they got to the team of them”)
Við skifum á bókum - we exchange books



Pronunciation
In general, sounds not normally pronounced are pronounced when speaking slowly



Vocab
Tónskáld - composer
Svíi / Svíinn -Swede
Spánverji – Spaniard
Þjóðverji- german
Rússinn -russian
Leiðrétting -correction
Hverfi (hvervi) – neighbourhood area, district
Ermarsund – the English channl
Stærsti –biggest
Langstærsti by far the biggest
Samsett – put together
Skilja – to split
Kilja við – to depart from
Samræmi – stuff
Síðast tími – last time
Eignar fornöfn – positive pronoun
Eignarsambönd – positive constructions
Öfug – reverse
Sama merking – same meaning
Kjarnafarsla – topicalization
Neitun – negation, refusal
Eggjakaka - omlette
Á ödru? Ári- a bit more than one year (“on the way to the second year”)
Vera á tali við = vera að tala við
Lauma sér inn – to sneak in
Þröskuldur – threshold
Þar sem hún – as she stood
Gluggakista – windowsill
Þaktar = þekja – to cover
Eitt af öðru – one after another, one by one
Birta – brightness
Birtast – to appear
Flugnauængir? – fly wings
Fölur - pale
Fölna – to turn pale, fade, wilt
Nálgadist – to get closer
Dieldi… skæla = grata (more common)
Ekki… fyrr en – not until
Ekki vitund – not at all
Vitund – a little
Rekur fyrirtæki? – to run a company
Sulta – jam
Sultugerð – jam factory
Taka sig saman – come together, join forces
Þróa – develop
rektor – rector
miða – to consider, to compare to
miða við = muðað við – according to
samskipti – communication
hér á landi = hérlendis
þarfir – meets
þurfa – to meet
hinn hópurinn – the other group
skoðan – investigation, opinion
skiptastá – to change, to exchange
stig 1-4 – level 1-4
lokastig –final level
hraður – fast
hraðar - faster
gera ráð fyrir - it’s expected
ég geri ráð fyrir = ég býst við þvi - I suppose/expect
spjalla – to chat
gúðspjall –gospel
spjallrás – chat channel, chatbox, IM
þema – theme (loanword)
krimmi – detective story, crime novel
aðstandandi – kinsman, supporter. Related to:
alstandendur – caretaker (parents are caretakers, etc)
að mestu leyti – mainly, mostly
að sögn birnu - according to birnu
hins vegar – on the other hand. Related to.
Annars – on one hand
Jákvæður – positive
Neikvæður – negative
Að telja upp – to list
Starf – work
Samstarf – corporation
Umsagnir = umplötur – review
Plata – LP/CD



Abbreviations
Afsl (afslættur) discount
S.S. (svo sem) such as



General notes
Icelandic online is designed for people who’ve already learned another language before.