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11 November 2010 @ 02:06 am
IS: september notes 3  
Sorry, I thought I'd finished for September but since I didn't date well in my notebook I was wrong.


September notes 3

Grammar
Mér finnst Reykjavík (nf) stór (nf) borg (nf) – no “er” like in english.
I find/think Reykjavík (is a) big city.

Mér líka/honum líkar
mér líka ____ vel (rosalega, frekar, svo)
mér líkar ísland vel


Assumed meaning: Diskarnir eru í eldhúsinu = diskarnir eru frammi í eldhúsi
The dishes are in front (by the door) of the flat/kitchen.
Bókin er ísvefnherberginu = bókin er inni í svefn…
Skápnum – upp í skáp – uppi á skáp
Á because it means “on”. “í“ would mean “inside”

Hann er úti í glugga – hann er í glugganum -
úti - in outwards direction, to the “outmost limits of your flat”. You compare everything to yourself and the window is further “outside” from the flat than you are, so it is “out on the window”

dýr – doorframe, doorway
hurð - door
But “ég loka dýrunum” because you’re closing the opening of the doorway, you’re not closing the actual piece of wood that is the door itself.

CASES
án – preposition,governs dative. No greining
Hún fer án mannsins – she goes alone (without husband)
Þetta er bein hundsins – hundurinn á beinið

Noun + pronoun (indicates posessor)
Either use minn/þinn – þetta er bílinn minn
Þetta bíllinn hennar (genitive)

Noun + noun
Þetta er bílinn mannsins/konnurnar

Þetta er bíll Jóns – formal/written
Þetta er bíllinn hans Jóns – spoken/everyday

It’s not proper to add a definite article on an abstract noun
Never use an article on family/friends (because they denote a social relation) except “my wife/husband/fiance”
Ex. Konan mín er ekki heima. Because kona means woman, but we specifically mean wife.
Eiginkona/eiginmaður – wife/husband and in this form no article is used. But most people say kona/maður, other forms are very stylistic/formal

to make a compound word, the first word turns to genitive case
Kaffi – coffee
Kanna – jug, pot
Kaffikanna – coffee pot
Blóm – flower
Pottur – pot
Blómapottur – flowerpot
Tannbursti – toothbrush
Eldhúsklukka – kitchen clock

Cardinal numbers – one, two, three
Ordinal numbers – first, second, third
Ég á heima á annari (ordinal number) hæð – “I own home on second floor/storey” - I live on the second floor (ex apartment)



Example sentences
Finnst hún skemmtileg – does she find/think it fun
Er við hliðina á vaskinum – is next to the sink
við hvaða götu? On what street?
Alþingihúsið er í Kirkjustræti
Hvar er þessi hús? (hús means building here??)
Geturður sagt mér hvar…?
Hvernig líkar þér á íslandi?
Ég þarf á lána penna?
Fá penna lánaðan
Hvað er best á íslandi?
Hvers saknarðu mest? – what do you miss most?
Hvað finnst þér um ísland? – how do you find iceland/what do you think about iceland?



Pronunciation
´ is not an accent mark (ex. y vs ý). It’s a dipthong mark.

[] – phonetic writing
[v] v: - vowel
[c] – consonant
Long – V:C
Stutt - VCC

Unstressed – don’t talk about length. Only in stressed.
Mamma, læknir, lappa – stutt
Læknir – stutt
Búa, bý, kaka, mæja, saga - langt
K(a)ka – sérhjóði áherslu eru löng eða stutt

Krakkar [krahkar] VCC
(h)- aspiration. The aspiration turns it into two sounds, krah and kar
mamma [mam:a] VC: one long sound because mm is “one long m”, without aspiration
kyssa [KjIS:A]
kisa [KjhISA]
hita [hI:ta]
hitta [hIhta]

Hafa (hava) but sófa (sófa) because sófa is a loanword

undantekningar – exceptions
when before “ng” or “nk”
bókst to hljóðskrift
a to á
i/y to í
e to ei
u to ú
ó to au
ex: fingur (fíNgur)

when before “gi”
I to í
E to ei
U to [yi]
Ö to au
O to [oi]
Ex: segi (sei), áhugi (áhuji)



Vocab
undantekning - exception
dýr – doorframe, doorway
hurð - door
dýna - mattress
vog = vigt (more common)
flísalagur – tiled
flísalagt baðherbergi – tiled bathroom
arinn – fireplace
orðmynd – word formation
án – without
saknar – to miss someone, assigns genitive
óhlutstæða – abstract
reynsla - experience
Sem vetur fer – unfortunately
Beint áfram – straight ahead (directionally)
Til hægri/vinstri –to the left/right
Á móti – opposite (directionally)
Ferð til xxx… - take xxx street/go down xxx…
Setjið saman – combine
Auk þess –besides, in addition to, apart from this
Ordinal - raðtala
Á óutgefinn- unpublished
Gefa út – published
Útgáfa – publication
Að festa – to fasten, to make something not go away
Að festakaup á einhverju (formal) = að kaupa
Að hrifast = hrifa
Að þessu sinni = í þetta skipti – this time
Aldur – age
Stiggan – stair
Sigg upp aldurs tigg(?) – to climb up carefully
Unnusta - fiance
Kærasta – girlfriend
Mun – difference
Að muna – will
Mun yngri – much younger
Á samt = með
Að vekja – to wake up
Að vekja athuga – to draw attention
Vegur – road
Enda – as they are indeed, as a matter of fact
Bókamessu – book fair
Segist, kveðist – claims
Stellingar – position
Að setja sig í einhverjar sérstakur stillingar – to place oneself in another’s shoes
Mannleg samskipti – human contact



Compound words
Visku – wisdom
Stykki – piece
Viskustykki – tea towel “piece of wisdom”
Ilmur – perfume “good smell”


General notes
The names of the basic kitchen units change depending on where in the country the speaker is from.
Ex: borðinu/eldhúsbekknum (northern)
Gardína = gluggtjöld